Skin & Breast


Assignment topic: Skin & Breast

Number of Pages: 1.8 pages / 500 words

Format: APA


This is a graded discussion: 10 points possible M2 Discussion 1 1 unread reply. 1 1 reply.    Skin & Breast This discussion contains 2 parts: KM is a 38-year-old white woman with a 6-year history of psoriasis. Her family history includes allergies and asthma and her mother with psoriasis. KM returns today for an increase in symptoms, and she wants to improve the appearance of her skin. Please discuss the following: What is the underlying cause of psoriasis? What are the common signs and symptoms of this disease? Define, Compare and Contrast the following conditions: Fibrocystic breast disease Fibroadenoma Malignant breast tumor   Submission Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in proper current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. Your initial post is worth 8 points. You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Your reply posts are worth 2 points (1 point per response.)  All replies must be constructive and use literature where possible. Please post your initial response by 23:59 Thursday, and comment on the posts of two classmates by 23:59 Sunday. You can expect feedback from the instructor within 48 to 72 hours from the Sunday due date.  Grading Rubric  Your assignment will be graded according to the grading rubric. Discussion Rubric Criteria Ratings Points Identification of Main Issues, Problems, and Concepts 5 points Distinguished Identify and demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of the issues, problems, and concepts. 4 points Excellent Identifies and demonstrate an accomplished understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts. 2 points Fair Identifies and demonstrate an acceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts. 1 points Poor Identifies and demonstrate an unacceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts. 5 points Use of Citations, Writing Mechanics and APA Formatting Guidelines 3 points Distinguished Effectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Exceptional use of citations and extended referencing. High level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors. 2 points Excellent Effectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. Moderate level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors. 1 point Fair Ineffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need more precision and attention to detail. 0 point Poor Ineffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. An unacceptable use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need serious attention. 3 points Response to Posts of Peers 2 points Distinguished Student constructively responded to two other posts and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal to each. 1 points Fair Student constructively responded to one other post and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal. 0 point Poor Student provided no response to a peer’s post.


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Skin and breast

Psoriasis is defined as a skin disorder where the cells are on the skin multiply ten times faster than the usual rate (Reali & Brembilla, 2019). This results in the skin building up into bumpy patches, red and covered in white scales. The scales can appear anywhere but are mostly present on the knees, scalp, elbows, and lower back. The condition can be passed down from one person to another. It has also been seen to occur in members of the same family (Reali & Brembilla, 2019). Researchers conclude that genetic and environmental factors cause the condition. The condition can be triggered by weather, especially in dry and cold conditions, stress, smoke, high alcohol intake, certain medications, and any injury to the skin.

The signs and symptoms of the condition include appearances of red skin, which has scales that are silver-colored. The scales might be painful and itchy. At times, they may crack and even bleed. Another symptom of the condition is decolorized and pitted nails, which may crush, or detach from the nail bed. Plates of scales on the scalp may also be a sign that a person has the condition (Reali & Brembilla, 2019). A person may also experience swollen and stiff joints.

Fibrocystic breast disease is a condition where the breasts feel lumpy (Shousha, 2016). The condition is not harmful, but many women find it bothersome and very uncomfortable. Most women with this condition rarely have any symptoms. However, even though the condition is not harmful, it may make breast cancer detection more demanding and more challenging than it should be (Shousha, 2016). The signs that can help detect the condition include swelling, tenderness, thickening of tissues, little pain, and a lump in one or both breasts. The condition is caused by changes in the way the body responds to hormones. The symptoms mainly manifest themselves during or just before periods.

Fibroadenoma is another condition that occurs on the breasts. Just like fibrocystic breasts, the fibroadenoma is also harmless to the body. The condition also manifests itself as a lump, but unlike fibrocystic breast, it is smaller. Though not harmful, fibroadenoma still requires treatment (Shousha, 2016). The leading cause of the condition is taking oral contraceptives before the age of 20. This explains why most of the people with the condition are under the age of 30. The tumors in the breasts are seen to grow in size, especially during pregnancy (Shousha, 2016). However, the tumors shrink during menopause and resolve on their own.

Malignant breast tumors are very different from the first two conditions. This is because the tumors are cancerous and are very aggressive since they invade and damage all the surrounding tissues (Denton, 2017). When malignant tumors are detected, the doctor performs a biopsy to determine how severe and aggressive it is. This will help the doctor determine the best treatment plan that should be followed by the patient. Malignant breast tumors are painful and very dangerous, unlike the first two conditions (Denton, 2017) This makes it the most dangerous out of the three. It is, therefore, essential to report any lump on the breasts before it is too late.


Denton, M. (2017). Breast cancer: Risks, detection, and treatment. Greenhaven Publishing LLC.

Reali, E., & Brembilla, N. C. (2019). Immunology of psoriatic disease. Frontiers Media SA.

Shousha, S. (2016). Breast pathology: Problematic issues. Springer.

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