Response 1 by 11/25/2021 at 6pm

 

Bronchiolitis is an acute viral illness affecting the lungs that causes inflammation of the lining of the epithelial cells in the bronchioles. This inflammation causes mucous production, inflammation and cellular necrosis of the epithelial cells. In addition, the cell inflammation can obstruct the airway with wheezing ultimately occurring. “It is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in children younger than 2 years of age” (Erickson et al., 2021). The respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of this illness. According to Erickson et al., (2021), RSV is an enveloped, non-segmented, negative strand RNA virus belonging to the paramyxovirus. Regarding the pathophysiology aspect, numerous processes occur.

The host’s inflammatory response contributes to the pathophysiology and symptomatology. Host cells recognize RSV via toll-like receptors, and secrete inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IFN-y, IL-1B, IL-4, IL-8). These effectors influence the local tissue environment directly, and also further the inflammatory process by drawing immune cells from the periphery. Many cytokines have known roles in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis, and some are even implicated in sustaining the infection. For example, the helper T cell’s main cytokine, IL-17, enhances RSV infection by increasing mucus production, inhibiting CD8 T cell activation, and reducing viral clearance. (Jacobson & Van Meer, 2013, p. 56).

Bronchiectasis is a permanent and abnormal widening of the bronchi due to chronic airway infection and inflammation and is a permanent condition. In addition, it can be localized to one lung or generalized to both. This disease can occur in young children and the elderly and people with COPD, immune dysfunction, rheumatoid arthritis, cystic fibrosis and other inflammatory conditions. “The dominant cell types involved in the inflammatory process in bronchiectasis are neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages” (King, 2009, p. 414). According to Shrawi et al., (2006), there is usually an initial event, which causes impairment of the mucociliary clearance of the bronchial tree, and the respiratory tract becomes colonized by bacteria that inhibit the ciliary function and promote further lung damage. In regard to the pathology of this disease, a combination of factors perpetuates this disease. “There is typically a defect in host defense, or some form of impaired drainage and/or obstruction within the airway walls that combines with a perpetuating infectious process that begets inflammation, and activates immune responses, proteolytic and oxidative processes” (Butler and Keane, 2017, p. 249).

In comparison, both bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis have similar attributes. Both illnesses affect young children and older adults due to a decreased or impaired functioning of the immune system. In addition, both produce a cough and inflammation in the lungs causing epithelial tissue damage that in turn causes obstruction of the small airways. In contrast, bronchiolitis is the most common in children two years of age or younger and is not a permanent infection. On the other hand, bronchiectasis results in a chronic obstruction of the small airways in the lungs resulting in a widening of the bronchi and a progressive decline in lung function. Bronchiectasis is preceded by other underlying chronic conditions for which no cure is available such as COPD and cystic fibrosis.

References

Butler, M W., & Keane, M. P. (2017). Bronchitis, bronchiectasis. Infectious Diseases, 243-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-6825-8.00027-7

Erickson, E. N., Bhakta, R. T., & Mendez, M. D. (2021). Pediatric Bronchiolitis. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519506/

Jacobson, D., & Van Meer, A. (2013). Bronchiolitis. Journal of Maternal Fetal Neonatal Medicine, 2, 55-59. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24059554#

King, P. (2009). The pathophysiology of bronchiectasis. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 4, 411-419. https://doi.org/10.2147/copd.s6133

Shirawi, N. A., Jahdali, H. A., & Shimemeri, A. A. (2006). Pathogenesis, etiology and treatment of bronchiectasis. Annals of Thoracic Medicine, 1(1), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.4103/1817-1737.25870

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Place Order
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.

Read more

Privacy policy

The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.

Read more

Calculate the price

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency